## Explain the concepts of Entropy and Information Gain in Decision Tree Learning.

**While constructing a decision tree, the very first question to be answered is, Which Attribute Is the Best Classifier?**

The central choice in the ID3 algorithm is selecting which attribute to test at each node in the tree.

We would like to select the attribute that is most useful for classifying examples.

What is a good quantitative measure of the worth of an attribute? We will define a statistical property, called ** information gain, **that measures how well a given attribute separates the training examples according to their target classification.

## Video Tutorial

ID3 uses this information gain measure to select among the candidate attributes at each step while growing the tree.

**ENTROPY MEASURES THE HOMOGENEITY OF EXAMPLES**

** Entropy **characterizes the (im)purity of an arbitrary collection of examples.

Given a collection S, containing positive and negative examples of some target concept, the entropy of S relative to this boolean classification is

where p+, is the proportion of positive examples in S and p-, is the proportion of negative examples in S.

In all calculations involving entropy, we define **0log0** to be .

Let, *S* is a collection of training examples,

*p*_{+} the proportion of positive examples in *S*

*p*_{–} the proportion of negative examples in *S*

**Examples**

*Entropy *(*S*) = –_{ }*p*_{+} *log*_{2} *p*_{+ }– *p*_{–}*log*_{2 }*p*_{– }[0 *log*_{2}0 = 0]

* Entropy *([14+, 0–]) = –_{ }14/14 *log*_{2} (14/14) –_{ } 0_{ }*log*_{2}_{ }(0) = 0

* Entropy *([9+, 5–]) = –_{ }9/14 *log*_{2} (9/14) –_{ } 5/14_{ }*log*_{2}_{ }(5/14) = 0,94

* Entropy *([7+, 7–_{ }]) = –_{ }7/14 *log*_{2} (7/14) –_{ } 7/14_{ }*log*_{2 }(7/14) = = 1/2 + 1/2 = 1

**INFORMATION GAIN MEASURES THE EXPECTED REDUCTION IN ENTROPY**

Given entropy as a measure of the impurity in a collection of training examples, we can now define a measure of the effectiveness of an attribute in classifying the training data.

Now, the ** information gain **is simply the expected reduction in entropy caused by partitioning the examples according to this attribute.

More precisely, the information gain, ** Gain(S, A) **of

**attribute**

*an***A,**relative to a collection of examples

**is defined as,**

*S,*where ** Values(A) **is the set of all possible values for attribute A, and

**is the subset of S for which attribute A has value v (i.e., S_v=**

*S,***{s ∈ S|A(s)**=

**v})**

**For example,** suppose ** S **is a collection of training-example days described by attributes including

**which can have the values**

*Wind,***or**

*Weak*

*Strong.*Information gain is precisely the measure used by ID3 to select the best attribute at each step in growing the tree.

The use of information gain is to evaluate the relevance of attributes*.*

### Solved Numerical Examples and Tutorial on Decision Trees Machine Learning:

**1. How to build a decision Tree for Boolean Function Machine Learning**

**2. How to build a decision Tree for Boolean Function Machine Learning**

**3. How to build a Decision Tree using ID3 Algorithm – Solved Numerical Example – 1**

**4. How to build a Decision Tree using ID3 Algorithm – Solved Numerical Example -2**

**5. How to build a Decision Tree using ID3 Algorithm – Solved Numerical Example -3**

**6. Appropriate Problems for Decision Tree Learning Machine Learning Big Data Analytics**

**7. How to find the Entropy and Information Gain in Decision Tree Learning**

**8. Issues in Decision Tree Learning Machine Learning**

**9. How to Avoid Overfitting in Decision Tree Learning, Machine Learning, and Data Mining**

**10. How to handle Continuous Valued Attributes in Decision Tree Learning, Machine Learning **

## Summary

This tutorial discusses, what are appropriate problems for Decision tree learning. If you like the tutorial share it with your friends. Like the Facebook page for regular updates and the **YouTube channel** for video tutorials.

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AjitSir we need this pdf pls…