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Approaches to Artificial Intelligence
Turing Test and Rational Agent Approaches
According to latest research, definitions of artificial intelligence vary along main dimensions thought processes and reasoning, and behavior. Thus views of Al fall into four categories
- Thinking Humanly (The Cognitive approach)
- Acting Humanly (The Turing Test approach)
- Thinking Rationally (The Laws of Thought approach)
- Acting Rationally (The Rational Agent approach)
This gives us four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence:
- Systems that think like humans
- Systems that think rationally.
- Systems that act like humans
- Systems that act rationally
Historically, all four approaches have been followed with consideration that
A human centered approach must be an empirical science, invoking hypothesis and experimental confirmation.
A rationalist approach innvolves a combination of mathematics and engineering.
Acting humanly – The Turing Test approach
The Turing Test was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence and proposed by Alan Turing (Turing 1950). Turing defined that the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks, which is sufficient to fool an interrogator is Intelligence of Machine. The test Turing proposed is that the computer should be interrogated by a human via a teletype, and passes the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or human at the other end.
Programming a computer to pass the test provides plenty to work on and also requires the following capabilities.
Natural Language Processing to enable It to communicate successfully in English (or some other human language)
Knowledge Representation to store information provided before or during the interrogator,
Automated Reasoning to use the stored information to answer question. and to draw new conclusions,
Machine Learning to adapt to nest circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns
Even though Total Turing test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the interrogator and the computer but includes a video signal so that the interrogator can test the subject’s perceptual abilities, as well as the opportunity for the interrogator pass physical objects “through the hatch”.
To pass the total Turing test the compute will need
- Computer Vision to perceive objects, and
- Robotics to move them about.
Within AI, there has not been a big effort to try to pass the Turing test.
Acting Rationally – The Rational Agent Approach
In The rational agent approach, AI is viewed as the study and construction of rational agents. Which acts rationally means acting so as to achieve one’s goals, given one’s beliefs. An agent is just something that perceives and acts. In the “law of thought” approach to AI the whole emphasis was on making correct inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational age., because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to get Al conclusion that a given action will achieve one’s goals, and All to an on that conclusion. All the “cognitive skills” needed for the Turing Test are there to allow rational actions.
On the other hand, correct inference is not all of rationality, because there are often situations where there is no probably correct thing to do, yet something must still be done. There are also ways of acting rationally than cannot be reasonably said to involve inference.
For example, pulling one’s hand off of a hot stove is a reflex action that is more successful than a slower action taken after careful deliberation.
Thus, the rational agent system needs the ability to represent knowledge and reason wish it because tins enables machine to reach good decisions m a wide variety of situations