## Principal Component Analysis Solved Example

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.

In this article, I will discuss how to find the principal components with a simple solved numerical example.

### Problem definition

Given the data in Table, reduce the dimension from 2 to 1 using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm.

Feature | Example 1 | Example 2 | Example 3 | Example 4 |

X_{1} | 4 | 8 | 13 | 7 |

X_{2} | 11 | 4 | 5 | 14 |

**Step 1: Calculate Mean**

The figure shows the scatter plot of the given data points.

Calculate the mean of X_{1} and X_{2} as shown below.

**Step 2: Calculation of the covariance matrix. **

The covariances are calculated as follows:

The covariance matrix is,

**Step 3: Eigenvalues of the covariance matrix**

The characteristic equation of the covariance matrix is,

Solving the characteristic equation we get,

**Step 4: Computation of the eigenvectors**

To find the first principal components, we need only compute the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue. In the present example, the largest eigenvalue is λ_{1} and so we compute the eigenvector corresponding to λ_{1}.

The eigenvector corresponding to λ = λ_{1} is a vector

satisfying the following equation:

This is equivalent to the following two equations:

Using the theory of systems of linear equations, we note that these equations are not independent and solutions are given by,

that is,

where `t `

is any real number.

Taking ** t = 1**, we get an eigenvector corresponding to λ

_{1}as

To find a unit eigenvector, we compute the length of X_{1} which is given by,

Therefore, a unit eigenvector corresponding to λ_{1} is

By carrying out similar computations, the unit eigenvector `e`

corresponding to the eigenvalue λ= λ_{2}_{2} can be shown to be,

**Step 5: Computation of first principal components**

let,

be the k^{th} sample in the above Table (dataset). The first principal component of this example is given by (here “T” denotes the transpose of the matrix)

For example, the first principal component corresponding to the first example

is calculated as follows:

The results of the calculations are summarised in the below Table.

X_{1} | 4 | 8 | 13 | 7 |

X_{2} | 11 | 4 | 5 | 14 |

First Principle Components | -4.3052 | 3.7361 | 5.6928 | -5.1238 |

**Step 6: Geometrical meaning of first principal components**

First, we shift the origin to the “center”

and then change the directions of coordinate axes to the directions of the eigenvectors e_{1} and e_{2}.

Next, we drop perpendiculars from the given data points to the e1-axis (see below Figure).

The first principal components are the e1-coordinates of the feet of perpendiculars, that is, the projections on the e1-axis. The projections of the data points on the e1-axis may be taken as approximations of the given data points hence we may replace the given data set with these points.

Now, each of these approximations can be unambiguously specified by a single number, namely, the e1-coordinate of

approximation. Thus the two-dimensional data set can be represented approximately by the following one-dimensional data set.

### Summary: Principal Component Analysis Solved Example

This article discusses what is Principal component analysis in Machine Learning and how to find the Principal Components using the PCA algorithm – Solved Example. If you like the material share it with your friends. Like the **Facebook page** for regular updates and the **YouTube channel** for video tutorials.